HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a virus that infects humans and weakens their immune system. As a result, the person loses his ability to fight against infection and becomes susceptible to a number of diseases.
Mumbai Districts AIDS Control Society (MDACS) is an autonomous body registered under Charitable Trust Act, established on 27th July 1998 by Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) for control & prevention of HIV/AIDS in Mumbai. Mumbai reported its first AIDS case in 1986. The City's health department responded promptly by undertaking serological surveys among sex workers, screening of blood for HIV in blood banks and setting up treatment centers in Medical Colleges.
MDACS implements National AIDS Control Program (NACP) under the guiding principles of National AIDS Control Organization (NACO), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. MDACS serves as a nodal agency, using multi-sectoral approach collaborating with general Health System, other Government departments, NGOs/CBOs, private sector and People living with HIV/AIDS. MDACS provides services through its various divisions viz. Basic Services, Blood Safety, Targeted Intervention, STI, Care Support & Treatment, Information Education & Communication and Mainstreaming.
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National AIDS Control Organization is the parent body of Mumbai Districts AIDS Control Society.
National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) (Linked to NACO Web Site)
NACO is a division of the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, GOI that provides leadership to HIV/AIDS control programme in India through 35 HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control Societies.
As the epidemic spread, need was felt for a nationwide programme and an organization to steer the programme. In 1992 India's first National AIDS Control Programme (1992-1999) was launched, and National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) was constituted to implement the programme.
Mumbai Districts AIDS Control Society was established in 1998 by Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (Linked to MCGM Web Site) to address the challenges of HIV/AIDS in the city. MDACS serves as a nodal agency, using multi-sectoral approach collaborating with General Health System, NGOs/CBOs and people living with HIV/AIDS.
Authorities of the Society:-
1. Governing Body Committee - Chairperson : Municipal Commissioner
2. Executive Committee. - Chairperson : Addl. Municipal Commissioner
Accelerate Reversal and Integrate Response
Reduce new infections by 50% (2007 Baseline of NACP III)
Provide comprehensive care and support to all persons living with HIV/AIDS and treatment Services for all those who require it
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a virus that infects humans and weakens their immune system. As a result, the person loses his ability to fight against infection and becomes susceptible to a number of diseases.
HIV transmission can occur in
the following ways:
The body fluids proven to spread HIV are blood, semen, vaginal fluid, breast milk and other body fluids containing blood. Some other body fluids that may transmit the virus where healthcare workers (doctors, nurses, lab technicians, attendants) need to be careful are cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the brain and the spinal cord, synovial fluid surrounding bone joints and amniotic fluid surrounding a fetus.
Unprotected Peno-Vaginal sex:
AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. It is the last stage of HIV infection where the body can no longer defend itself and becomes susceptible to various diseases. It results in death of the patient. Proper & continuous Anti-Retroviral Treatment (ART) can improve & prolong the life of an HIV Infected Person.
HIV is the virus that can infect a human body. A HIV infected individual is said to be HIV positive and will remain one throughout his life. Such individuals may appear healthy and not exhibit any symptoms. In the advanced stage of HIV infection, the immunity of the HIV infected individual lowers considerably. S/He becomes more susceptible to various infections and diseases like TB, fungal infection, Herpes, cancer, etc. This syndrome or set of conditions is known as AIDS.
No, douching after sex does not provide protection against HIV transmission because semen enters the cervix almost immediately after ejaculation. Douching can disturb the normal flora of the vagina and makes a person more susceptible to infections including sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV.
Oral sex involves stimulating the partner's genitals with mouth, lips or tongue. Though it is considered a low risk activity, infection can occur when there are ulcers/cuts in the mouth and the infected partner's semen or vaginal fluid enters the mouth.
Oral sex can be made safer by using a latex barrier. While performing oral sex on a male it is recommended that the male partner wears condom. In case of oral sex, performed on a woman, the female partner should use female condom or male partner should use dam which is a thin square of latex.
Yes, having sex with a HIV infected person or a person whose HIV status is not known, puts one at risk for HIV even with a single act of unprotected sex.
Yes. This is because one may not be aware of the sexual activity of the partners involved and the partner could be infected with HIV or other STDs (sexually transmitted diseases). The risk can be avoided by being faithful in a relationship with single uninfected & equally faithful partner.
Yes, correct and consistent use of condom during vaginal, anal, or oral sex reduces the risk of HIV infection.
If both partners are HIV positive then condom should be used by only one partner. Both male and female condoms offer the same level of protection against HIV. Male and female condoms should not be used at the same time.
No. Unless one partner is infected and both partners have ulcers/cuts in their mouth and there is blood-to-blood contact.
No. One cannot get infected with HIV from any of the above mentioned methods.
Yes, one can get HIV if the equipment used for tattooing and ear piercing is not properly sterilized.
HIV virus cannot survive outside the human body for long. Therefore, HIV cannot be transmitted through food, water, or air, or by touching any object that was handled by a HIV infected person.
No. HIV virus is not known to survive or multiply in mosquitoes.
No. Even if the food contains small amounts of HIV-infected blood, it gets destroyed when exposed to air or heat during cooking.
The infection risk can be reduced by always using new needles & syringes and not sharing them. The best option of course would be to refrain from drug abuse.
Yes, any person infected with HIV can pass on the infection even if he or she 1. has no symptom (asymptomatic) 2. has not been diagnosed as HIV positive but might be in Window Period 3. Is undergoing treatment for HIV 4. Has an undetectable viral load as it can be transmitted to another person.
HIV can be divided into two major types, HIV type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV type 2 (HIV-2). A person infected with HIV-1 is said to be positive for HIV-1 and person infected with HIV-2 is said to be infected with HIV-2. HIV-1 is the predominant type and is easily transmitted as compared to HIV-2. In HIV-2 the period between initial infection and illness is longer. HIV-1 has 4 known strains -‘M’, ‘O’, ‘N’ and ‘P’. ‘M’ or major strain is responsible for majority of the infections and has 9 different subtypes.
There are 2 types of HIV - HIV type 1 and HIV type 2. It is possible for a person to get infected with both types of HIV simultaneously or super infected with subtypes of HIV-1 & HIV-2.
Yes, if doctors, dentists and other health care professionals do not follow Universal Safety Precautions. One should insist on use of disposable needle and syringes during any injection or procedure & enquire if the equipments are sterilized.
One can get tested for HIV by blood test at any ICTC (Integrated Testing and Counseling Centre) located in Government and Municipal hospitals and in Maternity Homes. These centers are also known as ‘Shakti Clinic’.
HIV testing in Shakti Clinic is done free of cost.
Any individual wanting to undergo
HIV testing can directly walk into Shakti Clinic. There the individual undergoes:
Pre -test counseling - The counselor will provide general information about HIV/AIDS & will ask few questions to understand the source of infection if any.
Testing - A written consent will be taken from the individual and blood sample will collected by the technician. The sample will be tested for presence of HIV antibodies and the result will be informed to the individual by the counselor.
Post Test Counseling - All persons who have undergone the test will be given information on life style changes to be adopted to reduce the risk of HIV infection and transmission. In addition, individuals who test positive for HIV will be linked to nearby ART (Anti Retroviral treatment) centre for further management.
A ‘positive’ result means the person has antibodies against HIV and can pass on the infection to others through routes described earlier.
Yes. The test results are only disclosed to the person undergoing the test. It is not shared with family or friends of the person undergoing the test.
A ‘negative’ result means antibodies against HIV are not present but it could also mean that the person is in the ‘window period’. If the person has indulged in high risk behavior then it is advisable to repeat the test after 3-6 months.
Having unprotected sex with multiple partners, commercial sex workers, indulging in unprotected homosexual activity and sharing needles & syringes with infected drug users are all considered as ‘high risk behavior’.
The window period represents the period from the time when a person first gets infected with HIV till the detection of HIV antibodies in the blood. Commonly used tests for HIV infection look for presence of HIV antibodies which may develop within 3- 6 months after infection. Therefore, it is recommended that a person indulging in high risk behavior and with a negative test report needs to repeat the test after 3-6 months.
HIV attacks the CD4 cell (a type of white blood cell), which protects our body from infection. The HIV genetic material is released into the CD4 cell and integrates with the CD4 cell DNA and destroys the CD4 cell. The virus multiplies and infects other healthy CD4 cells and destroys them. This leads to lowering of CD4 cells and weakening of the immune system and makes the person susceptible to a number of diseases.
Different tests available for
HIV are :-
ELISA and Rapid Test - which detect for the presence of HIV antibodies.
Western blot ?detects HIV antibodies and is a confirmatory test.
DNA PCR & viral load ? are HIV virus detection tests.
Antiretroviral drugs are used in the treatment of HIV infection, The treatment is a combination of several ARV drugs and acts by suppressing rate of HIV multiplication in the body. This reduces the number of HIV in the body which results in improved immune status and helps a person to live longer.
In Mumbai, ARV treatment is available free of cost in 12 Govt. /Municipal hospitals and in 2 Private Health Facilities.
No, there is no cure for HIV or AIDS. The medicines used in ART help to control the infection and allow people with HIV and AIDS to live longer & healthier life.
No, there is no vaccine to prevent HIV infection or AIDS.
No, ART does not cure HIV disease but controls disease progression by inhibiting the HIV virus replication process. This results in improved CD4 count and thus improves the immune status of the infected person.
CD4 cell count and viral load provide information regarding immunity of an infected person and severity of HIV infection respectively and help the doctor to take decision about starting the ART.
As per NACO guidelines a HIV infected person should be started on ART when his CD4 count becomes less than 500 cell/mm3. But pregnant women, all children less than 5yrs of age, HIV infected patients with TB, HIV infected patients with Hepatitis and with HIV infected patients with opportunistic infections are started on ART irrespective of the CD4 count.
ART is to be continued for life. Stopping or taking irregular treatment will make the virus resistant to drugs and render the treatment ineffective. Therefore, it is necessary to stick to the drug regimen as advised by a qualified doctor.
Monitoring of ART, includes CD4 count and basic lab investigations & is carried out regularly by a qualified doctor. It is necessary to review the success of therapy and check for side effects. If there is further reduction in CD4 count or increase in viral load, or presence of side effects, the drug and the dose may be changed accordingly.
Yes, even though the blood tests show very low levels of HIV virus, it is not totally eradicated from the blood. A HIV positive person can always infect others and therefore should always take appropriate precautions.
HIV-infected mother can transmit HIV to the child during pregnancy, child birth & breast feeding. The risk of transmission is more if the mother has been recently infected or is in an advanced stage of HIV or has AIDS.
The following steps needs to be
undertaken to prevent HIV transmission from infected pregnant mother to her child:
Registration ? Every pregnant woman should register herself with Antenatal Care Centre & get HIV testing done at the earliest.
Treatment - should be started once detected positive irrespective of CD4 count under the guidance of doctor.
Delivery ? should take place in the hospital.
Treatment of Infant- mandatory for the infected woman's baby to be Started on ART treatment, after birth for 6 weeks or 12 weeks, as per doctor's advice.
Breast feeding ? Exclusive breastfeeding (only breast milk, no water or any other fluid) to be given for first 6 month to the baby. Replacement feeding (commercially available breast milk substitute) is allowed in some cases. No top feeding (other than human milk) or mixed feeding is allowed.
Testing of infant: Blood Test should be done at 6 weeks, 6 months, 12months and 18months. At 18 months, if the blood test is negative, a confirmatory test is done to ensure the child is HIV negative. If child is HIV positive, he should be put on pediatric ARV treatment.
In addition to antiretroviral
drugs the following factors play an important role in leading a healthy life with
Sexually transmitted infections/diseases (STIs/STDs) are diseases transmitted from one person to another during an unprotected sexual intercourse. These infections may be spread through vaginal, anal & oral sex. These are also known as venereal diseases.
Signs and symptoms of STIs are:
Sexually transmitted infection (STI) means the patient is suffering from various infections like Syphilis, Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, etc. but does not exhibit signs & symptoms and appears healthy. In sexually transmitted disease (STD), the patient complains of genital discharge, genital ulcer, swelling in the groin, burning while passing urine etc. and needs treatment. These infections become chronic without treatment and unknowingly transmit the infection to others by sexual contact.
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections passed from one person to another during sexual contact. A person with STD may have genital ulcers/blisters and genital discharge in some cases. This increases the risk of getting HIV infection 5 - 10 times during unprotected sexual activity with HIV infected partner. Effective complete treatment of STDs with the use of condom reduces the risk of HIV transmission by 50%.
No. It is very unlikely that a person would get HIV from a human bite. Transmission of HIV occurs by direct blood-to-blood contact and not by exchanging saliva. To pass the virus, the infected person need to have ulcer or (injury) in his /her mouth and ulcer or injury in the skin of the other person.
Yes, Most workers face no risk of getting the virus while doing their work. The virus is mainly transmitted through the transfer of blood or sexual fluids. Since contact with blood or sexual fluids is not part of most people's work, it is safe to work with HIV infected person.
Store condoms in a cool place,
keep away from direct sunlight. Check the expiry date on the condom wrapper. There
is chance of breakage of condom if it is used after expiry date or it has become
sticky. Open the package carefully. Teeth or fingernails can tear the condom.
For latex male condoms:
For female condoms:
Doctors, dentists, nurses, laboratory technicians and staff who come in contact with HIV infected samples like blood, body fluids are at risk. One can protect oneself by taking universal safety precautions like wearing gloves, lab coats, washing hands before and after all medical procedures, sterilizing equipment’s, following proper bio- medical waste disposal methods.
If you are below 18 years and need to get tested for HIV, you need to be accompanied by a parent/guardian.
The only effective way to prevent sexual transmission of HIV is through abstinence - avoiding all vaginal, anal, oral sex or by having single faithful uninfected sexual partner.
If you are HIV positive and your CD4 count is more than 500 cell/mm3 without any signs and symptoms of any disease then you need to register at any ART center for regular CD4 monitoring and counselling. The antiretroviral medications or other drugs will be decided as per the doctor’s advice.
Mumbai District AIDS Control Society (MDACS)
Acworth Complex, R.A. Kidwai Marg,
Mumbai - 400031
For any information on HIV, for reporting Stigma or information on services call: Saadhan Helpline on 022-24114000
A Confidential & Anonymous Telephonic Counseling Service forHIV/AIDS also provides crosscutting support to MCGM Health Initiative viz. T.B., Monsoon related diseases, Diabetesetc. It increases referrals and helps clients to get access to the services. Itis paid service. Even though the service is Mumbai based, it receives callsfrom across India and abroad.
Tele counseling services are provided between 8 am - 8.00 pm (Mon -Sat)
|Public Relation Officer||Appellate Officer|
|Dr. Shrikala Acharya||Dr. Padmaja Keskar|
|Addl. Project Director||Project Director,|
|Mumbai Districts AIDS Control Society||Mumbai Districts AIDS Control Society|
|Contact No. : 022-24100246/47||Contact No. : 022-24100246/47|
Vision NACP-IV (2012-17)
The overall goals of NACP III is to halt and reverse the epidemic in India by integrating programs for prevention, care, support and treatment. NACP-III is based on the experiences and lessons drawn from NACP-I and II, and is built upon their strengths. Its priorities and thrust areas are drawn up accordingly. In the intervention programs, highest priority was given to High risk groups and Second high priority is accorded to long-distance truckers, prisoners, migrants (including refugees) & street children. General population in need for accessing prevention services viz. STIs, VCTC, Use of condoms are next in the line of priority. People (PLHA, Children, persons infected and affected by HIV) in need of services will be assured access to PPTCT, ART, pediatric ART, and other needs will be addressed i.e. social entitlements, psycho-social support, outreach services, referrals and palliative care. Mainstreaming and partnerships are the key approaches to facilitate multi-sectoral response engaging a wide range of stakeholders i.e. private & public sector, civil society organizations, networks of people living with HIV/AIDS. Technical and financial resources of the development partners are leveraged to achieve the objectives of the programme.
A number of new initiatives were undertaken. Targeted Interventions were started through NGOs, for High Risk Groups & bridge populations. The School AIDS Education Programme was conceptualized. Voluntary counseling and testing facilities, interventions for prevention of parent to child transmission, initiation of free antiretroviral therapy were started in healthcare facilities.
The objective of NACP-I was to control the spread of HIV infection. During this period, a major expansion for infrastructure of blood banks, establishment of STI clinics, involvement of NGOs for awareness generation were undertaken. The programme led to capacity development at the state level with the creation of State AIDS Cells in the Directorate of Health Services in states and union territories.
Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre (ICTC), the primary component of basic services, serves as the entry point for a range of interventions in HIV prevention, care and support. The ICTCs have been established in all Municipal/Government hospitals/ Maternity Homes spread across Mumbai and are well known as "Shakti Clinics".
Objectives of an ICTC (Shakti Clinic)
Services at ICTC
The testing at ICTCs is done by Rapid test method. Confirmation of positive HIV status is done by 3 different test protocols ensuring high quality and standards.
HIV infection in a pregnant mother can be transmitted to her child during pregnancy, labour, delivery or breastfeeding. All pregnant women registered for antenatal (ANC) care are offered HIV testing to ensure early detection of HIV infection in the mother. The HIV infected pregnant and breastfeeding women, regardless of the CD4 count or WHO Clinical staging, both for their own health and to prevent vertical transmission of HIV, are started on lifelong multidrug ART regimen under the PPTCT programme since December, 2013. The multi-drug ART has the potential to dramatically reduce the HIV transmission from mother to child to less than 5% as opposed to 15-45% in the absence of any interventions.
All infants born to HIV infected mothers aregiven Syrup nevirapine from birth till 6 weeks/12weeks and provided syrup co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. The infants are screened for HIV using DNA-PCR technique by collecting Dried Blood Spot at 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months. Confirmatory antibody testing is done when the infant is 18 months of age. Infants detected positive are started immediately on ART at the ART centres.
Post exposure prophylaxis (PEP)
refers to comprehensive medical management to minimise the risk of infection following
potential exposure to blood-borne pathogens (HIV, HBV, HCV). This includes counselling,
risk assessment, relevant laboratory investigations based on informed consent of
the source and exposed person, first aid and depending on the risk assessment, the
provision of short term (four weeks) of antiretroviral drugs, with follow up and
PEP is presently being provided to Health Care Personnel (HCP) for occupational
exposure to potentially infected source and cases of sexual assault.
PEP is presently being provided to Health Care Personnel (HCP) for occupational exposure to potentially infected source and cases of sexual assault.
The primary responsibility of the Blood Safety Division is ensuring safe & adequate supply of blood in Mumbai, through voluntary blood donation. The division promotes awareness about voluntary blood donation and motivates voluntary donors. Rational use of blood is also encouraged by this division. The annual requirement of blood for Mumbai city is around 3 lac units.
As a result of intervention after the adoption of National Blood Policy in April, 2002, an increase in voluntary blood collection (from 43.8% in 2002 to 93.6% in 2014) is seen accompanied by a gradual phasing out of replacement donation in Mumbai. A positive step in this direction is the support by NACO/MDACS to 21 blood banks (Municipal, Government and Charitable) in Mumbai city.Blood collected from donors is tested for HIV, HBsAg, HCV, VDRL and Malaria.
Mumbai city has got component separating facility and the National Plasma Fractionation Centre. In addition "Blood on Call" (Phone No.104) service has been started in Maharashtrato ensure easy access to adequate and safe blood supply. Currently two blood banks are being upgraded to Blood Component Separation Units (BCSUs).As blood needs to be transported under proper cold chain maintenance, in Mumbai, 8 Blood Transportation Vans transfer blood units to the Blood Banks.
To recognize the contribution of voluntary blood donors, special days are observed viz. - National Voluntary Blood Donation Day on 1st Oct., World Blood Donor Day-14th June.To mark this occasion,several awareness and trainings programs are arranged for general public as well as other stakeholders.
Information about blood banks in Mumbai can be obtained from the link below: Click here to view
Targeted interventions are aimed at offering prevention and care, support and treatment services to high risk populations (Female Sex Workers- FSW, Male having Sex with Male- MSM, Transgender- [TG/ Hijra /Third gender (apart from male and female)] , Injecting Drug Users- IDUs) & the bridge population (Migrants and Long Distance Truckers) to minimize HIV transmission and improve their access to services. Other Vulnerable Population (HIV affected children, youth 15-19 years old and women) is also one of the components of the program.
One of the ways of controlling the disease from further spread is to carry out direct intervention programmes among these groups. This is done through multi-pronged strategies, beginning with behavior change communication, counseling, providing healthcare support, treatment for STDs, and creating an enabling environment that will facilitate behavior change.
The packages of services provided are as follows:-
HRGs/ Core groups receive a comprehensive package of preventive services, including treatment for (STI), distribution of condoms and other risk reduction materials, needle syringe exchange programme, (OST) etc.
Interventions for Bridge Populations particularly focus on clients of sex workers who receive a combination of services including condom promotion, referrals to clinical services for STI management and Behavior Change Communication (BCC).
Targeted population is reached through 34 TI projects (17 projects of FSW, 8 projects of MSM, 5 projects of TG, 3 projects of IDU, 13 projects of Migrant, 2 projects for Trucker intervention.) by engaging 24 NGOs/CBOs in Mumbai. These high risk groups are further linked to appropriate HIV/AIDS services i.e. STI, ICTC, ART etc. through their NGOs / CBOs.
List of Targeted Intervention Centres: Click here to view
80% of the people get HIV infection through sexual route. Hence, effective control of Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI)/ Reproductive Tract Infection (RTI) is one of the cost effective strategies for reducing/preventing transmission of HIV. In presence of STI /RTI, risk of HIV transmission increases 4 to 8 times. Individuals with STI/RTI have a significantly higher chance of acquiring and transmitting HIV. Moreover STI/RTI are also known to cause use infertility and reproductive morbidity. Early diagnosis, effective & complete treatment of STI/RTI reduces transmission of HIV by more than 40%.
In Mumbai, Sexual & Reproductive health services are provided through 27 Designated STI/ RTI clinics (DSRC) branded as Suraksha Clinic to increase the acceptance & access of STI/RTI services. The services provided are as follows:-
Technical support is provided to DSRCs by STI Regional Laboratory set up at B.Y.L Nair Hospital Microbiology Dept. for management of critical STI/RTI cases. 48 Static clinics are established in the communities to give STI/RTI services to the high risk / core group viz. FSW, MSM, TG, IDU as well as bridge population i.e. Truckers & Migrant served through TI projects.
This division caters to care, support & treatment needs of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAs). All diagnostic as well as therapeutic services related to ART are provided free of cost to PLHAs. Various services are provided through 14 ART centres set up in hospitals spread across the city. Person diagnosed as HIV positive is referred to the ART centre for Pre- ART services (counselling, blood tests, CD4 tests etc.) to monitor their health status. Eligible patients are put on Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) which suppresses viral replication and slows or halts disease progression.Thus ARTprolongs life and improves quality of life of PLHAs. It also helps in reducing HIV transmission by decreasing the viral load.
Services provided are as follows:-
Currently, in Mumbai 75,220 PLHAs are registered and 46232 are active in care (are alive and on ARTupto May2015). Preventive ART (Post Exposure Prophylaxis) services are provided to health care workers after accidental exposure to HIV and to sexual assault victims. There is one Center of Excellence at Sir J.J. Hospital and one Pediatric Center of Excellence at LTMG Hospital which provides technical support to the ART centers. Tele medicine facility is availed by patients from all over Maharashtra.
IEC plays an important role in all prevention efforts. To improve the access of services provided by MDACS & to increase knowledge among general population (especially youth and women) on safe sexual behavior, various awareness campaigns are designed by making combined use of Mass (Spots, interviews, stories, news on Radio/TV/News papers), Mid (folk media, rock band, Exhibitions) & Outdoor Media (Advertisements on Bus Shelters, Bus back & side panel, Auto Rickshaw, Taxi; Hoardings, Kiosk , Banners, Window Top Transfers, Foot over Bridges etc.). Specially devised infotainment activities are planned for Migrants, IDUs, FSWs, TG, MSM to bring about Behavioral change.
Components of IEC:-
Information and Education provides platform for decision making based on informed choice. Well planned Programs are implemented to reach to the masses as well as targeted group.
Youth are our national asset. It is very essential to clear their misconceptions about modes of HIV transmission, physical growth & changes occurring in adolescent age, sex & sexuality. Tendency to experiment and lack of access to correct information make them more vulnerable.
Red Ribbon Club (RRC) program proves as a great help in addressing issues of youth. RRC is a voluntary on-campus intervention program for students in educational institutions using the services of cadre officers of the state‘s National Service Scheme (NSS). Currently, MDACS has formed 125 Red Ribbons clubs and trained 625 peer educators to encourage peer to peer messaging on HIV/AIDS. RRC promotes access to information on safe sexual behaviors. It is also aims at harnessing the potential of the youth by equipping them with correct information on mental health, substance abuse, nutrition and reproductive health and building their capacities as peer educators in spreading message on positive health behavior as well as enables them to become change agents in HIV & AIDS program.
TThe program addresses the knowledge, attitude and behavior of the youth. Red Ribbon Clubs spread awareness about HIV/AIDS among the youth through various activities like street plays, rallies, poster/slogan & different type of competitions. Red Ribbon Clubs are also helpful in arranging Voluntary Blood Donation Camps.
The operational definition of mainstreaming is "Integrated, inclusive and multi-sectoral approach that transfers the ownership of HIV/AIDS issues - including its direct and indirect causes, impact and response to various stakeholders, including the government, the corporate sector and civil society organizations" .
HIV/AIDS is influenced by a number of socio-economic elements. Mainstreaming HIV is an effective approach towards a multisectoral response. Components of Mainstreaming:-
Getting meaningful involvement of non-health sector (Public, Private sector etc.) to reach out to the various segments of population can play vital role in reducing vulnerability of infected / affected PLHA / HRG. For the national AIDS response Mainstreaming and Social Protection continue to be key strategies for risk reduction, integration and impact mitigation.
HIV/AIDS program was reviewed through the CMIS till end of financial year 2010-11 & it is replaced by Strategic Information Management System (SIMS). SIMS is a web based integrated Monitoring & Evaluation system. It is centralized system that allows the users to capture the data at various levels like reporting unit, district level & state level and enable them to view the data whenever required. The basic purpose of SIMS is to bring uniformity and simplify the HIV/AIDS control activities of data consolidation and analysis with the considerable reduction in cycle time for collection of data.
The outmost role of Strategic Information Management Unit (SIMU) of MDACS is to implement & to monitor the progress of the HIV/AIDS program through SIMS. SIMU provides evidence to track the progression of epidemic with respect to the demographic characteristics & geographical area including Geographical Information System (GIS) support.
SIMS Web Link : http://naco-sims.nic.in/
SIMS Wall Chart : http://naco.gov.in/sites/default/files/SIMS%20Wall%20Chart.pdf
India has the largest and one of the best HIV surveillance systems in the world. HIV surveillance in India was started in 1985 when the Indian Council of Medical Research initiated surveillance among blood donors and patients with Sexually Transmitted Diseases. In 1998, the National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) formalized Annual HSS in the country and in subsequent years, Antenatal Clinic (ANC) sites in peri-urban and rural settings, and High Risk Group surveillance sites were rapidly scaled up.
During NACP-IV, HIV Sentinel Surveillance will be conducted once in two years so that adequate time is spent on in-depth analysis and modeling, epidemiological research and use of surveillance data for programmatic purposes
Guidelines, Format, Reports, Publications and other documents:http://naco.gov.in/surveillance-epidemiology-0
NACO has positioned itself as the promoter and coordinator of research on HIV/AIDS not only in India, but the entire South Asia region through partnership and networking with national academic and other institutions in the region. This initiative will enhance NACO's knowledge and evidence base of the various aspects of the epidemic.
Format For Submission of Research Proposal :http://naco.gov.in/sites/default/files/Format%20for%20Proposal%20Submission.pdf
Data Sharing Guidelines :http://naco.gov.in/sites/default/files/Data%20Sharing%20Guidelines_%2013%20July%202015.pdf
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For Social Protection schemes
(Children Home; Observation Home; After care home; Shelter home; Balsangopan Scheme;
Adoption Scheme; CWC; Balchikitsa Kendra; Working Women Hostel; Counseling centres;
open, day & Night Shelters; Domestic Violence act, Sexual Harassment Act, Manodhairya
Scheme can approach :-
BDD Chawl, Worli, Mumbai , 18
Contact Number :- 022 2492222484
Tappa kramank - 2 Near Rationing office,
R.C. Marg, Chembur, Mumbai , 71
Contact Number :- 022 25232308
For free legal aid services and
to arrange awareness camps in the community on various legal issues can approach
Mumbai District Legal Service Authority
Highpeak Apartment, Bhavani Estate,
S.V.Road, Old Bandra Court, Bandra(W),
Near bandra Lake, Mumbai -50.
Contact No. 022 26401240/022 26402175
For seed money, vocational training,
Pantapradhan Rojgar Nirmiti Program can approach :-
Directorate of Industries, Government of Maharashtra
Industrial Chemical Laboratory Building
In front of Tata Nagar, V.N. Purav Marg,
Chunabhatti (E), Mumbai , 22
Contact No. 022 24055999 /022 24056199
For Income certificate; domicile
certificates; Sanjay Gandhi Niradhar Yojna can approach :-
Tahsildar, District Collector Office, Old Custom House Fort, Mumbai Maharashtra
Tahsil Office, Mulund West ,Mumbai, Maharashtra, near Topiwala College.
E mail id : firstname.lastname@example.org
Thasil Office, D N Road, Andheri West, Mumbai - 400058, Near Navarang Cinema Bhavans College (Map)
Contact No. 022 26231368
E mail id : email@example.com
Eksar Road, Ganesh Mandir, Borivali West ,Mumbai, Maharashtra.
E mail id : firstname.lastname@example.org
In Mumbai, Red Ribbon Clubs are formed through NSS Department in the colleges affiliated to Mumbai University.
Coaches, Sportsmen will be trained by MDACS. Further Awareness campaigns will be held by department during sports competitions. Head office of the department is located in Pune.
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